CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides
Main Mode of Action Group and Primary Site of ActionChemical Sub-group or Exemplifying Active ConstituentActive Constituents
1*
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Nerve action
1A
Carbamates*
Bendiocarb
Carbaryl
Carbofuran
Carbosulfan
Methiocarb
Methomyl
Oxamyl
Pirimicarb
Propoxur
Thiodicarb
* all members of this class may not be cross resistant1B
Organophosphates*
Acephate
Azamethiphos
Azinphos methyl
Cadusafos
Chlorfenvinphos
Chlorpyrifos
Chlorpyrifos-methyl
Diazinon
Dichlorvos
Dimethoate
Ethion
Fenamiphos
Fenitrothion
Fenthion
Maldison (malathion)
Methidathion
Mevinphos
Omethoate
Phorate
Phosmet
Pirimiphos-methyl
Profenofos
Prothiofos
Temephos
Terbufos
Trichlorfon
2
GABA-gated chloride channel blockers

2A
Cyclodiene organochlorines
No registered actives
Nerve action2B
Phenylpyrazoles (Fiproles)
Fipronil
[1] Refer APVMA website (www.apvma.gov.au) to obtain complete list of registered products from the PUBCRIS database
Main Mode of Action Group and Primary Site of ActionChemical Sub-group or Exemplifying Active Constituent Active Constituents1
3
Sodium channel modulators

Nerve action
3A
Pyrethroids
Pyrethrins
Allethrin
Alpha-cypermethrin
Beta-cyfluthrin
Bifenthrin
Bioallethrin
Bioresmethrin
Cyfluthrin
Cypermethrin
Cyphenothrin
Deltamethrin
Esbiothrin
Esfenvalerate
Fenvalerate
Flumethrin
Gamma-cyhalothrin
Imiprothrin
Lambda-cyhalothrin
Permethrin
Prallethrin
Pyrethrins
Tau-fluvalinate
Tetramethrin
Transfluthrin
Zeta-cypermethrin
3B
No registered actives in Australia
No registered actives in Australia
4
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive modulators

Nerve action
4A
Neonicotinoids
Acetamiprid
Clothianidin
Imidacloprid
Thiacloprid
Thiamethoxam
4B
Nicotine
No registered actives in Australia
4C
Sulfoximine
Sufloxaflor
5
Nicotinic Acetylcholine receptor allosteric modulators (nAChR)

Nerve action
SpinosynsSpinosad
Spinetoram
6
Glutamate-gated Chloride (GluCl) channel allosteric modulators

Nerve action
Avermectins
Milbemycins
Abamectin,
Emamectin benzoate
Milbemectin
7
Juvenile hormone mimics

7A
Juvenile hormone analogues
Methoprene
Growth regulation7B
Fenoxycarb
Fenoxycarb
7C
Pyriproxyfen
Pyriproxyfen
Main Mode of Action Group and Primary Site of ActionChemical Sub-group or Exemplifying Active ConstituentActive Constituents1
8
Miscellaneous non-specific (multi-site) inhibitors-

8A
Alkyl halides
Methyl bromide
8B
Chloropicrin
Chloropicrin
8C
Fluorides
Sulfuryl fluoride
9
Chordotonal organ TRPV channel modulators

Nerve Action
9B
Pyridine azomethine derivatives
Pymetrozine
10
Mite growth inhibitors

10A
Clofentezine
Hexythiazox

Clofentezine
Hexythiazox
Growth regulation10B
Etoxazole
Etoxazole
11
Microbial disrupters of insect midgut membranes


(includes transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins)
11A
Bacillus thuringiensis and the insecticidal proteins they produce.

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis
B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai
B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki
B. thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis

B.t. crop proteins: Cry1Ac Cry2Ab Cry1F Vip3A
11B
B. sphaericus and the insecticidal proteins they produce
Bacillus sphaericus

12
Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP

12A
Diafenthiuron
Diafenthiuron
synthase12B
Organotin miticides
Fenbutatin oxide
Energy metabolism12C
Propargite
Propargite
12D
Tetradifon
Tetradifon
13
Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient

Energy metabolism
ChlorfenapyrChlorfenapyr
14
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel blockers

Nerve action
Nereistoxin analoguesNo registered actives in Australia
Main Mode of Action Group and Primary Site of ActionChemical Sub-group or Exemplifying Active ConstituentActive Constituents1

15
Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0,


Growth regulation
Benzoylureas Chlorfluazuron
Diflubenzuron
Hexaflumuron
Lufenuron
Triflumuron
Flufenoxuron
Novaluron
16
Inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1

Growth regulation
BuprofezinBuprofezin
17
Moulting disruptor, Dipteran

Growth regulation
CyromazineCyromazine
18
Ecdysone receptor agonists

Growth regulation
DiacylhydrazinesMethoxyfenozide
Tebufenozide
19
Octopamine receptor agonists

Nerve action
AmitrazAmitraz
20
Mitchondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors

20A
Hydramethylnon
Hydramethylnon
Energy metabolism20B
No registered actives in Australia
No registered actives in Australia
20C
No registered actives in Australia
No registered actives in Australia
20D
Bifenazate
Bifenazate
21
Mitchondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors

Energy metabolism
21A
METI acaricides and insecticides
Fenpyroximate
Pyridaben
Tebufenpyrad
21B
Rotenone
Rotenone (Derris)
22
Voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers

22A
Oxadiazines
Indoxacarb
Nerve action22B
Semicarbazones
No registered actives in Australia
23
Inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase

Lipid synthesis, growth regulation
Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivatives
Spirotetramat
Main Mode of Action Group and Primary Site of ActionChemical Sub-group or Exemplifying Active ConstituentActive Constituents1

24
Mitochondrial complex IV electron transport inhibitors

24A
Phosphides
Phosphine
Aluminium phosphide
Magnesium phosphide
Energy metabolism24B
Cyanides

No registered actives in Australia

25
Mitochondrial complex II electron transport inhibitors


Energy metabolism
25A
Beta-ketonitrile derivatives
No registered actives in Australia
25B
Carboxanilides

No registered actives in Australia
28
Ryanodine receptor modulators

Nerve and muscle action
DiamidesChlorantraniliprole
Cyantraniliprole
Flubendiamide
29
Chordotonal organ modulators – undefined target site


Nerve action

FlonicamidFlonicamid
UN AzadirachtinAzadirachtin
Compounds of unknown or uncertain mode of action2DicofolDicofol
Lime sulphurLime sulphur
SulphurSulphur
  2               A compound with an unknown or controversial mode of action or an unknown mode of toxicity will be held in group ‘un’ until evidence becomes available to enable that compound to be assigned to a more appropriate mode of action group.
 
Active ConstituentCurrent Group
Abamectin6
Acephate1B
Acetamiprid4A
Allethrin3A
Alpha-cypermethrin3A
Aluminium phosphide24A
Amitraz19
AzadirachtinUN
Azamethiphos1B
Azinphos methyl1B
Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai11
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis11
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki11
Bacillus sphaericus11
Bacillus thuringiensis enebrionis
11
Bendiocarb1A
Beta-cyfluthrin3A
Bifenazate UN
Bifenthrin3A
Bioallethrin3A
Bioresmethrin3A
Buprofezin16
Cadusafos1B
Carbaryl1A
Carbofuran1A
Carbosulfan1A
Chlorantraniliprole28
Chlorfenvinphos1B
Chlorfluazuron15
Chlorfenapyr13
Chloropicrin8B
Chlorpyrifos1B
Chlorpyrifos-methyl1B
Clofentezine10A
Clothianidin4A
Cyantraniliprole 28
Cyfluthrin3A
Cypermethrin3A
Cyromazine17
Deltamethrin3A
Diafenthiuron12A
Diazinon1B
Dichlorvos1B
DicofolUN
Diflubenzuron15
Dimethoate1B
Emamectin benzoate6
Esbiothrin3A
Ethion1B
Etoxazole10B
Esfenvalerate3A
Fenamiphos1B
Fenbutatin oxide12B
Fenitrothion1B
Fenoxycarb7B
Fenpyroximate21A
Fenthion1B
Fenvalerate3A
Fipronil2B
Flonicamid9C
Flubendiamide28
Flufenoxuron15
Flumethrin3A
Gamma-cyhalothrin3A
Hexaflumuron15
Hexythiazox10A
Hydramethylnon20A
Imidacloprid4A
Imiprothrin3A
Indoxacarb22A
Lambda-cyhalothrin3A
Lufenuron15
Magnesium phosphide24A
Maldison (malathion)1B
Methidathion1B
Methiocarb1A
Methomyl1A
Methoprene7A
Methoxyfenozide18
Methyl bromide8A
Mevinphos1B
Milbemectin6
Oxamyl1A
Omethoate1B
Permethrin3A
Phorate1B
Phosmet1B
Phosphine24A
Pirimicarb1A
Pirimiphos-methyl1B
Prallethrin3A
Profenofos1B
Propargite12C
Propoxur1A
Prothiofos1B
Pymetrozine9B
Pyrethrins3A
Pyridaben21A
Pyriproxyfen7C
Spinosad5
Spinetoram5
Spirotetramat23
Sulfoxaflor4C
Tau-fluvalinate3A
Tebufenozide18
Tebufenpyrad21A
Temephos1B
Terbufos1B
Tetradifon12D
Tetramethrin3A
Thiacloprid4A
Thiamethoxam4A
Thiodicarb1A
Transfluthrin3A
Trichlorfon1B
Triflumuron15
Zeta-cypermethrin3A
 

CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups.  The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management.

All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.  These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels.  They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance.  It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents.  The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au