Herbicide Mode of Action Groups

List of approved active constituents in each “Group” and, for ease of identification, the trade name of the first registered product or successor.  Refer to the APVMA website (www.apvma.gov.au) to obtain a complete list of registered products from the PUBCRIS database.

High Resistance Risk

CHEMICAL FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME)
GROUP A Inhibitors of acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase (Inhibitors of fat synthesis/ACC’ase inhibitors)
Aryloxyphenoxypropionates:
(Fops):
clodinafop (Topik®), cyhalofop (Barnstorm®), diclofop (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*, Hoegrass®), fenoxaprop (Cheetah® Gold* , Wildcat®), fluazifop (Fusilade®, Fusion®*), haloxyfop (Verdict®), propaquizafop (Shogun®), quizalofop (Targa®)
Cyclohexanediones:
(Dims):
butroxydim (Falcon®, Fusion®*), clethodim (Select®), profoxydim (Aura®), sethoxydim (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*), tralkoxydim (Achieve®)
Phenylpyrazoles:
(Dens):
pinoxaden (Axial®)
GROUP BInhibitors of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors), acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)
Imidazolinones:
(Imis):
imazamox (Intervix®*, Raptor®,), imazapic (Bobcat I-Maxx®*, Flame®, Midas®*, OnDuty®*), imazapyr (Arsenal Xpress®*, Intervix®*, Lightning®*, Midas®*, OnDuty®*), imazethapyr (Lightning®*, Spinnaker®)
Pyrimidinylthiobenzoates:bispyribac (Nominee®), pyrithiobac (Staple®)
Sulfonylureas:
(SUs
azimsulfuron (Gulliver®), bensulfuron (Londax®), chlorsulfuron (Glean®), ethoxysulfuron (Hero®), foramsulfuron (Tribute®), halosulfuron (Sempra®), iodosulfuron (Hussar®), mesosulfuron (Atlantis®), metsulfuron (Ally®, Harmony®* M, Stinger®*, Trounce®*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide), prosulfuron (Casper®*), rimsulfuron (Titus®), sulfometuron (Oust®, Eucmix Pre Plant®*), sulfosulfuron (Monza®), thifensulfuron (Harmony®* M), triasulfuron, (Logran®, Logran® B Power®*), tribenuron (Express®), trifloxysulfuron (Envoke®, Krismat®*)
Triazolopyrimidines:
(Sulfonamides):
florasulam (Paradigm®*, Vortex®*, X-Pand®*), flumetsulam (Broadstrike®), metosulam (Eclipse®), pyroxsulam (Crusader®Rexade®*)

*              This product contains more than one active constituent

Moderate Resistance Risk

CHEMICAL FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENT (FIRST REGISTERED TRADE NAME)
GROUP CInhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem II (PS II inhibitors)
Amides:propanil (Stam®)
Benzothiadiazinones:bentazone (Basagran®, Basagran® M60*, Lawnweeder plus®*)
Nitriles:bromoxynil (Barrel®*, Buctril®, Buctril® MA*, Eliminar C®*, Flight®*, Jaguar®*, Talinor®*, Triathlon®*, Velocity®*), ioxynil (Actril DS*,Totril®,)
Phenylcarbamates:phenmedipham (Betanal®)
Pyridazinones:chloridazon (Pyramin®)
Triazines: ametryn (Amigan®*, Gesapax®Combi*, Krismat®, Primatol Z®), atrazine (Gesapax® Combi*, Gesaprim®, Primextra® Gold*), cyanazine (Bladex®), prometryn (Bandit®*, Cotogard®*, Gesagard®), propazine (Agaprop®), simazine (Gesatop®), terbuthylazine, (Palmero®TX*, (Terbyne®), terbutryn (Agtryne® MA*, Amigan®*, Igran®)
Triazinones:hexazinone (Bobcat I-Maxx®*, Velpar® K4*, Velpar® L), metribuzin (Aptitude®*, Sencor®)
Uracils:bromacil (Hyvar®, Krovar®*), terbacil (Eucmix Pre Plant®*, Sinbar®)
Ureas:diuron (Karmex®, Krovar®*, Velpar® K4*), fluometuron (Bandit®* , Cotogard®*, Cotoran®), linuron (Afalon®), methabenzthiazuron (Tribunil®), siduron (Tupersan®), tebuthiuron (Graslan®)
GROUP DInhibitors of microtubule assembly
Benzamides:propyzamide (Kerb®)
Benzoic acids:chlorthal (Dacthal®, Prothal®*)
Dinitroanilines:oryzalin (Rout®*, Surflan®), pendimethalin (Stomp®), prodiamine (Barricade®), trifluralin (Jetti Duo®*, Treflan®)
Pyridines:dithiopyr (Dimension®)
GROUP EInhibitors of mitosis / microtubule polymerisation
Carbamates:carbetamide (Carbetamex®), chlorpropham (Chlorpropham®)
GROUP FBleachers: Inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS inhibitors)
Pyridazinones:norflurazon (Solicam®)
Pyridinecarboxamide:diflufenican (Brodal®, Spearhead®*, Jaguar®*, Tigrex®*, Triathlon®*, Yates Pathweeder®*), picolinafen (Eliminar C®*, Flight®*, Paragon®*, Sniper®)
GROUP GInhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOs)
Diphenylethers:acifluorfen (Blazer®), oxyfluorfen (Goal®, Rout®*, Yates Pathweeder®*)
N-phenylphthalimides:flumioxazin (Valor®)
Oxadiazoles:oxadiargyl® (Raft), oxadiazon (Ronstar®)
Phenylpyrazole:pyraflufen (Ecopar®, Pyresta®*)
Pyrimidindiones:butafenacil (Logran® B-Power®*, Resolva®*), saflufenacil (Sharpen®)
Triazolinones:carfentrazone (Affinity®, Aptitude®*, Broadway®*,
Silverado®*)
GROUP HBleachers: Inhibitors of 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPDs)
Isoxazoles:isoxaflutole (Balance®, Palmero®TX*)
Pyrazoles:


benzofenap (Taipan ®), pyrasulfotole (Precept®*,Velocity®*)
Triketone::Bicyclopyrone (Talinor®*)
GROUP IDisruptors of plant cell growth (Synthetic Auxins)
Arylpicolinate:halauxifen (ForageMax®*,Paradigm®*,Pixxaro®*, Rexade®*)
Benzoic acids::dicamba (Banvel®, Banvel M®*, Barrel®*, Casper®*, Lawnweeder plus®*, Mecoban®, Methar Tri-Kombi®*)
Phenoxycarboxylic acids:
(Phenoxys

2,4-D (Actril DS®*, Amicide®, Fallow Boss Tordon®*, Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Pyresta®*, Vortex®*), 2,4-DB (Trifolamine®), dichlorprop (Lantana 600®), MCPA (Agtryne® MA*, Banvel M®*, Barrel®*, Basagran® M60*, Buctril® MA*, Flight®*, Lawnweeder plus®*, MCPA, Midas®*, Paragon®*, Precept®*, Silverado®*, Spearhead®*, Tigrex®*, Tordon 242®*, Triathlon®*), MCPB (Legumine®), mecoprop (Mecoban®, Mecopropamine®, Methar Tri Kombi®*, Multiweed®*)
Pyridine carboxylic acids:
(Pyridines):

aminopyralid (Fallow Boss Tordon®*, ForageMax®*, Grazon Extra®*, Hotshot®*, Stinger®*, Vigilant II®*), clopyralid (Lontrel®, Spearhead®*), fluroxypyr (Hotshot®*, Pixxaro®*, Starane®), picloram (Fallow Boss Tordon®*, Grazon Extra®*, Tordon®, Tordon 242®*, Tordon Regrowth Master®*, Trinoc®*, Vigilant II®*), triclopyr (Garlon®, Grazon Extra®*, Tordon Regrowth Master®*, Tough Roundup® Weedkiller*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide)
Quinoline carboxylic acids:quinclorac (Drive®)
GROUP JInhibitors of lipid synthesis (Not ACCase inhibitors)
Benzofurans: ethofumesate (Tramat®)
Chlorocarbonic acids:2,2–DPA (Dalapon®), flupropanate (Frenock®)
Phosphorodithioates:bensulide (Prefar®)
Thiocarbamates:EPTC (Eptam®), molinate (Ordram®), pebulate (Tillam®), prosulfocarb (Arcade®, Boxer® Gold*), thiobencarb (Saturn®), triallate (Avadex®, Jetti Duo®*), vernolate (Vernam®)
GROUP KInhibitors of cell division / Inhibitors of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA inhibitors)
Acetamides: napropamide (Devrinol®)
Chloroacetamides:dimethenamid (Frontier®-P, Outlook ®), metazachlor (Butisan®), metolachlor (Boxer® Gold*, Dual® Gold, Primextra® Gold*), propachlor (Prothal®*, Ramrod®)
Isoxazoline: pyroxasulfone (Sakura®)
GROUP LInhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem I via electron diversion (PSI inhibitors)
Bipyridyls: diquat (Reglone®, Spray Seed®*), paraquat (Alliance®*, Gramoxone®, Spray Seed®*)
GROUP MInhibitors of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3 phosphate (EPSP) synthase
Glycines: glyphosate (Arsenal Xpress®*, Broadway®*, Illico®*, Resolva®*, Roundup®, Tough Roundup® Weedkiller*, Trounce®*, Yates Pathweeder®*)
GROUP NInhibitors of glutamine synthetase
Phosphinic acids: glufosinate (Basta®, Liberty®)
GROUP OInhibitors of cell wall (cellulose) synthesis
Alkylazine:indaziflam (Specticle®)
Benzamides:isoxaben (Gallery®, X-Pand®*)
Nitriles:dichlobenil (Casoron®)
GROUP PInhibitors of auxin transport
Phthalamates:naptalam (Alanap-L®)
GROUP QBleachers: Inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis unknown target
Isoxazolidinones:clomazone (Command®)
Triazoles:amitrole (Alliance®*, Amitrole®, Illico®*)
GROUP RInhibitors of dihydropteroate synthase (DHP inhibitors)
Carbamates: asulam (Asulox®)
GROUP ZHerbicides with unknown and probably diverse sites of action
Arylaminopropionic acids:flamprop (Mataven L®)
Dicarboxylic acids:endothal (Endothal®)
Organoarsenicals:DSMA (disodium methylarsonate) (Methar®, Trinoc®*), MSMA (monosodium methylarsonate) (Daconate®)

*              This product contains more than one active constituent


CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups.  The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management.

All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.  These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels.  They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance.  It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents.  The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au