INTRODUCTION

The CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group (IRMRG) has drafted insect resistance management strategies in conjunction with growers, researchers and agronomists to minimise the development of insect resistance to insecticides. These strategies provide growers with guidelines for insecticide use (and other methods) for sustainable insect control.

PRINCIPLES OF RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT

Insecticide or acaricide resistance management strategies seek to minimise the selection for resistance to any one type of insecticide or acaricide. This requires an understanding of insecticides as they are grouped according to similarity of Mode of Action (MoA) in controlling insects and mites.

In practice, sequences or rotations of compounds from different MoA groups provide an effective approach to resistance management. In practice, sequences or rotations of compounds from different MoA groups provide an effective approach to resistance management. These MoA groups are shown in the Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides Table.

EFFECTIVE RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES USE ALTERNATIONS OR SEQUENCES OF DIFFERENT MODES OF ACTION

The objective of Insecticide Resistance Management is to prevent or delay resistance developing to insecticides, or to help regain susceptibility in insect pest populations in which resistance has already arisen. IRM is important in maintaining the efficacy of valuable insecticides. It is usually easier to prevent resistance occurring than it is to reactively regain susceptibility.

Insecticide applications are often arranged into MoA spray windows or blocks that are defined by the stage of crop development and the biology of the pest(s) of concern. Local expert advice should always be followed with regard to spray windows and timings. Several sprays of a compound may be possible within each spray window but it is generally essential to ensure that successive generations of the pest are not treated with compounds from the same MoA group.

WHAT IS RESISTANCE?

Resistance to insecticides and acaricides may be defined as ‘a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest species’.

Resistance arises through the over use or misuse of an insecticide or acaricide against a pest species and results in the selection of resistant forms of the pest and the consequent evolution of populations that are resistant to that insecticide or acaricide.

MODE OF ACTION, TARGET-SITE RESISTANCE AND CROSS-RESISTANCE

In the majority of cases, not only does resistance render the selecting insecticide ineffective but it often confers cross-resistance to other chemically related compounds. Compounds within a specific chemical group usually share a common target site within the pest, and thus share a common Mode of Action (MoA). It is common for resistance to develop that is based on a genetic modification of this target site. When this happens the compound loses its pesticidal efficacy. Because all compounds within the chemical sub-group share a common MoA, there is a high risk that the resistance will automatically confer cross-resistance to all the compounds in the same sub-group. It is this concept of cross-resistance within chemically related insecticides or acaricides that is the basis of the Mode of Action classification.

ALTERNATION OF CHEMISTRY

Constant use of insecticides from one chemical grouping (MoA) will increase the risk of rapid build-up of resistance to that chemical group. Alternate use of chemical groups with different MoAs will slow down the process of selection for resistance.

USE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES

Incorporation of cultural techniques for controlling an insect pest will reduce selection pressure from the insecticides. Any resistance management strategies should incorporate all available methods of control for the insect pest concerned.

UNDERSTANDING OF THE INSECT/MITE LIFE CYCLE

A good understanding of the life cycle of the pest is essential so that control methods can be effectively targeted. An insecticide or acaricide should always be targeted at the pest growth stage that is most susceptible for that insecticide or acaricide.

APPLICATION

Label Recommendations

Insecticide labels have been carefully developed to ensure the most effective control of the pest. The label should at all times be carefully read and adhered to.

Rates

Full recommended rates of registered insecticides should always be used to ensure the most effective control of the pest.

Coverage

The majority of insecticides require good coverage of the target area to ensure the best possible chance of contact and subsequent control of the pest.

RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY DESIGN

Crop/Pest or Regional Strategies

The strategies below are provided on a CROP by PEST basis (eg. Tomato - Heliothis). However, in horticultural and agricultural areas often a range of crops are grown that are attacked by a range of pests.

In many cases, a specific MoA insecticide can be used across this range of crops to control multiple pests that have the ability to move from crop to crop. There is interaction between intensive horticulture and broadacre farming, as with Diamondback Moth (DBM) in Brassica vegetables and resistance strategies that could be compromised by widespread use of insecticides for DBM control in canola.

Also, the pest complex for a specific crop will vary within production regions, especially between Northern and Southern Australia.

For this reason, CROP by PEST strategies can be flawed and further Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) advice for specific pests should always be sought on a local basis.

An alternative to the CROP by PEST strategy is that of “Regional strategies” such as those for Cotton, Brassicas and the Southern NSW and Northern Victorian IRM strategy for grain and annual horticultural crops”.

These regional or specific crop strategies are located on the CropLife Australia website.

The overall Resistance Management Strategy of avoiding overuse of individual Modes of Action insecticides should be followed, not just on a specific crop and pest but on a broad perspective of crops and pest complex.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Further information on Insecticide Resistance, Management Strategies and Insecticide Mode of Action can be found on the International IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) website www.irac-online.org.

Crop: Bananas

Insect(s): Banana weevil borer (Cosmopolites sordidus) and Rust Thrips (Chaetanaphothrips signipennis)

Components of the Strategy:
  1. Use only clean planting material.
  2. If re-planting into an old banana block, allow at least 6 months fallow after old banana material has rotted down.
  3. Remove weeds and trash around banana stools to allow maximum effectiveness of insecticides and to reduce sheltering sites for weevils. Application of insecticide to trash may lead to reduced control of banana weevil borer.
  4. Cut up fallen and harvested pseudostems to reduce weevil breeding sites.
  5. Monitor regularly for banana weevil borer activity by trapping (when adult weevils are active) or conduct corm damage ratings.
  6. Only use insecticides when populations reach or exceed accepted threshold levels. Refer to local Department of Agriculture guidelines.
  7. Only use insecticides at the registered rate of application and apply at times when the particular product will have the maximum impact, i.e. use contact insecticides only when weevil borer adults are active.
  8. Use insecticides only in the years indicated in the following diagrams.
  9. Consider the impact of the use of other pesticides for other insects or nematodes on banana weevil borers.
  10. For rust thrips control, a combination of control methods such as butt/band sprays, stem injection or spray and bunch sprays may be required.

The following two diagrams are alternative Resistance Management Strategies depending on which product(s) are chosen for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control.

STRATEGY A

Where products other than controlled release formulations of imidacloprid are being used to control insects in bananas.

Group* Chemical Sub-Group Chemical Example Year 1 Use Year 2 Use Year 3 Use Year 4 Use Year 5 Use Year 6 Use
1Aor 1B Carbamates Organophosphates Oxamyl 1 or Acephate 2, cadusafos 1, chlorpyrifos 3, diazinon 3, prothiofos 1, terbufos 1 YES NO YES NO YES NO
2B Phenylpyrazole (Fiproles) Fipronil 3 YES NO YES NO YES NO
3A Synthetic pyrethroids Bifenthrin 3 NO YES NO YES NO YES
4A Neonicotinoids Clothianidin 3, imidacloprid 3 NO YES NO YES NO YES
5 Spinosyns Spinetoram 2 NO YES NO YES NO YES
  1. Products registered for banana weevil borer control.
  2. Product registered for rust thrips control as bunch sprays only.
  3. Products registered for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control.

Guidelines:

  1. The resistance management strategy may start at any point in the product group rotation and planting may occur in any year of the strategy.
  2. The product(s) used in any one year should not be followed by product(s) from the same insecticide group in the following year.
  3. Only products from the YES insecticide groups shown in the diagram above should be applied for banana weevil borer control and/or rust thrips control in the same year.
  4. If products from Group 1A or 1B (oxamyl, cadusafos or terbufos) are being used for nematode control in a block of bananas, then products from these groups should not be used for banana weevil borer control in the following year.
  5. Where there is evidence of banana weevil borer or rust thrips resistance to a product or group of products, these should not be used again for banana weevil borer or rust thrips control until there has been use of products from other Insecticide Mode of Action groups for a period of at least 2 years.

STRATEGY B

Where products including controlled release formulations of imidacloprid are being used to control insects in bananas.

Group* Chemical Sub-Group Chemical Example Year 1 Use Year 2 Use Year 3 Use Year 4 Use Year 5 Use Year 6 Use
1A or 1B Carbamates Organophosphates Oxamyl 1 or Acephate 2, cadusafos 1, chlorpyrifos 3, diazinon 3, prothiofos 1, terbufos 1 NO YES NO YES NO YES
2B Phenylpyrazole (Fiproles) Fipronil 3 YES NO YES NO YES NO
3A Synthetic pyrethroids Bifenthrin 3 NO YES NO YES NO YES
4A Neo-nicotinoids CR imidacloprid 3 YES YES YES NO NO NO
5 Spinosyns Spinetoram 2 YES NO YES NO YES
  1. Products registered for banana weevil borer control.
  2. Product registered for rust thrips control only as bunch sprays.
  3. Products registered for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control or suppression.
Guidelines
  1. The resistance management strategy may start at year 1 or year 4  in the product group rotation.
  2. Controlled release imidacloprid provides 3 years control of banana weevil borer with one application at planting, so after the 3rd year, insecticide products from other Mode of Action groups are to be used in rotation for at least 3 years for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control in a given block of bananas.
  3. Alternative product groups are provided in these 3 years for control of rust thrips as soil or stem treatments or bunch sprays.
  4. Only products from the YES insecticide groups shown in the diagram above should be applied for banana weevil borer control and/or rust thrips control in the same year.
  5. If products from Group 1A or 1B (oxamyl, cadusafos or terbufos) are being used for nematode control in a block of bananas, then products from these groups should not be used for banana weevil borer control in the following year. 
  6. Where there is evidence of banana weevil borer or rust thrips resistance to a product or group of products, these should not be used again for banana weevil borer control until there has been use of products from other Insecticide Mode of Action groups for a period of at least 2 years.

Crop(s): Sorghum, Maize, Summer and Winter Grain Legumes

Insect(s): Heliothis/Cotton bollworm/Native budworm (Helicoverpa spp.)

Guidelines:

  1. To help prevent the development of resistance to any one specific active ingredient (see table below), observe the following instructions:
  • Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region. Guidelines for use in chickpeas are also associated with the TIMS cotton IRMS.
  • Apply a specific active ingredient using a “window” approach to avoid exposure of consecutive insect pest generations to the same mode of action. Multiple successive applications of a specific active ingredient are acceptable if they are used to treat a single pest generation.
  • Following a “window” of a specific mode of action product, rotate to a “window” of applications of effective insecticides with a different mode of action.
  • The total exposure period of any one mode of action “active window” applied throughout the crop cycle (from seedling to harvest) should not exceed 50% of the crop cycle.
  • Incorporate IPM techniques into the overall pest management program and
  • Monitor insect populations for loss of field efficacy.
  1. Always read and follow product labels. Some products place a limit on the number of times they can be applied per crop (see table below) and when they can be applied.
  2. Monitor crops regularly and only apply insecticide when the pest threshold is reached.
  3. Ensure spray rig is properly calibrated and achieving good coverage with appropriate sized spray droplets.
  4. Time the application to the most susceptible life stage of the target pest.
  5. To encourage beneficial insects, use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or NPV sprays and avoid broad spectrum insecticides where possible, particularly early to mid-crop cycle.
  6. Be cautious of using insecticide tank-mixes where both active ingredients control Helicoverpa spp. as this strategy is generally not considered best practice for resistance management. Refer to document IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement for more information on this subject.
  7. DO NOT re-treat a spray failure with a product from the same chemical group.
  8. Practice effective pupae busting as soon as practicable after harvest.

 

Mode of Action Group as specified on product labelActive ingredientNumber applications permitted per crop per season from product labelLabelled crops
1Amethomyl, thiodicarbnot specifiedAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses
3Asynthetic pyrethroids (various)not specifiedAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses
6emamectin benzoate2All pulses
11ABacillus thuringiensisnot specifiedAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses
22Aindoxacarb1chickpea, faba bean, mung bean, soybean, azuki bean
28chlorantraniliprole2chickpea, mung bean, soybean
Not CategorisedNucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV)no limit but avoid season long use of low ratesAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses

Crop(s): Brassica

Insect(s): Diamondback Moth

Guidelines:
  1. To help prevent the development of resistance to any one specific active ingredient (see table below), observe the following instructions:
  • Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region.
  • Apply a specific active ingredient using a “window” approach to avoid exposure of consecutive insect pest generations to the same mode of action. Multiple successive applications of a specific active ingredient are acceptable if they are used to treat a single pest generation.
  • Following a “window” of a specific mode of action product, rotate to a “window” of applications of effective insecticides with a different mode of action.
  • The total exposure period of any one mode of action “active window” applied throughout the crop cycle (from seedling to harvest) should not exceed 50% of the crop cycle.
  • Incorporate IPM techniques into the overall pest management program and Monitor insect populations for loss of field efficacy.
  1. Always read and follow product labels. Some products place a limit on the number of times they can be applied per crop (see table below) and when they can be applied.
  2. Monitor crops regularly and only apply insecticide when the pest threshold is reached.
  3. Be aware of insecticide mode of actions used in the nursery phase of the crop and ensure a one generation break exists before re-use of that same mode of action in the field phase of the crop.
  4. Ensure spray rig is properly calibrated and achieving good coverage with appropriate sized spray droplets.
  5. Time the application to the most susceptible life stage of the target pest.
  6. To encourage beneficial insects, use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sprays and avoid broad spectrum insecticides, particularly early to mid-crop cycle.
  7. Be cautious of using insecticide tank-mixes where both active ingredients control DBM as this strategy is generally not considered best practice for resistance management. Refer to document IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement for more information on this subject.
  8. DO NOT re-treat a spray failure with a product from the same chemical group.
  9. Practice good crop hygiene to reduce DBM pressure- plant clean seedlings and incorporate crop residue as soon as practical after harvest.
Mode of Action Group as specified on the product labeled on product labelActive ingredientNumber applications permitted per crop per season from product label
1Amethomyl, thiodicarbNot specified
2Bfipronil4 per year within 8 week period
3Asynthetic pyrethroids (various)Not specified
5spinetoram4
6emamectin benzoate4 per year
11ABacillus thuringiensisnot specified
13chlorfenapyr2 but 4 in brussel sprouts
22Aindoxacarb4
28chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide3 but 1 for mixtures of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam

Crop(s): Various

Insect(s): Cotton/Melon Aphid and Green Peach Aphid

Guidelines:

  1. Rotate between registered insecticides that have different modes of action (eg. Group 1, Group 4,   Group 9, Group 12A (cotton crop only), Group 23 , Group 28 and Group 29.
  2. Do not apply consecutive applications of insecticides that have the same mode of action within and between seasons or exceed the recommended maximum number of applications in a crop.
  3. Do not follow a seed/seedling/soil treatment with a foliar application from the same Group when aphids are present.
  4. The Modes of Action (groups) and registered insecticides for control of cotton/melon aphid and/or green peach aphid are listed below:
Group* Chemical sub-group < strong >
Example Chemical
1ACarbamatespirimicarb
1BOrganophosphatesmethamidophos
4ANeonicotinoidimidacloprid
4CSulfoxaflorsulfoxaflor
9BPymetrozinepymetrozine
12ADiafenthiurondiafenthiuron
23Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivativesspirotetramat
28Diamidecyantraniliprole
29Flonicamidflonicamid

Notes:*Refer: CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

1. There is known cross-resistance between Groups 1A and 1B. Rotate between Group 1 and Group 4, 9B, 12A, 23, 28, and 29.

2. Consecutive applications of a Group 4A and Group 4C product may be made only if no other effective option is available – either because

     a) no other group is registered in the crop or

     b) the target pest is resistant to the other groups.

3. Seek advice from the manufacturers and/or government advisory services to determine local resistance levels for particular mode of action Groups

4. Do not exceed the maximum number of applications permitted on the insecticide label.

5. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests, consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to resistance development of Cotton/Melon Aphid and Green Peach Aphid.

6. When using insecticides/aphicides to control other pests consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare aphid populations.

7. For more detail on resistance management of aphids in cotton refer to the current cotton Insecticide Resistance Management Strategies or for more detail on resistance management for Green Peach Aphid in grain refer to: http://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/ipm-information/resistance-management-strategies/

Crop(s): Sweet Corn

Insect (s): Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) aka Heliothis

COMMENTS:

  1. The critical stage of infestation is during silking. Even low levels of heliothis infestation are unacceptable at the silking stage. Because sweet corn is less attractive to heliothis before flowering and it is picked soon after silking is completed, there is a relatively short period of protection required.
  2. Control of heliothis at the tasselling stage (occurs prior to silking stage) can be important in some regions as the tassel can act as a nursery for heliothis, which can then move onto the young developing cobs. Control of heliothis at this stage is not as difficult as at the silking stage
  3. Use of biological insecticides, Bt and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV), in the early stages of crop development is encouraged.
  4. Monitor crops regularly, at least weekly during silking and do not spray unless pest thresholds are exceeded.
  5. Labels of new products place a limit on the number of applications. If further control is required on one planting, chemicals from different mode of action groups within the same window should be used.
  6. Do not retreat a spray failure with a product from the same chemical group.
  7. Do not use mixtures of insecticides for controlling heliothis.
  8. Cultivation after harvest to destroy pupae will greatly assist in managing heliothis.
  9. Seek local advice on pest incidence and on the risk of resistance developing from insecticide programs used to control heliothis in crops other than Sweet Corn.
  10. To help prevent the development of resistance to any one specific active ingredient (see table below), observe the following instructions:
    (i) Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region;
    (ii) Apply a specific active ingredient using a “window” approach to avoid exposure of consecutive insect pest generations to the same mode of action. Multiple successive applications of a specific active ingredient are acceptable if they are used to treat a single insect generation;
    (iii) Following a “window” of a specific mode of action product, rotate to a “window” of applications of effective insecticides with a different mode of action.
    (iv) The total exposure period of any one mode of action “active window” applied throughout the crop cycle (from seedling to harvest) should not exceed 50% of the crop cycle;
    (v) Incorporate IPM techniques into the overall pest management program;
    (vi) Monitor insect populations for loss of field efficacy.
 

Mode of Action Group as specified on product label

Active ingredient

1A

Methomyl, Thiodicarb

3A

Synthetic pyrethroids (several)

5

Spinetoram

6

Emamectin benzoate

28

Chlorantraniliprole
2016-Sweet-Corn-Heliothis-Ear-Worm      

Crop(s): Tomato

Insect(s): Heliothis/Tomato Budworm (Helicoverpa spp.)

Guidelines:

  1. Monitor pest levels and do not spray unless pest thresholds are reached.
  2. Do not apply products outside their window of application for that chemical group.
  3. Integrate both chemical and non-chemical means of control as part of the overall control strategy. Examples are the use of predators/parasites and relevant cultural practices (crop hygiene, rotation of planted areas, and strategic time of planting).
  4. Seek local advice on pest incidence and the risk of resistance development from insecticide programs used to control Heliothis in other crops or to control other pests
  5. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests on tomato, consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to resistance development of Heliothis.

Crop(s): Potato

Insect(s): Potato Moth (Leafminer)

Group*Chemical sub-groupExample chemical
1BOrganophosphatesacephate, azinphos-methyl, methamidophos, diazinon, dichlorvos
1ACarbamatescarbaryl, methomyl
3APyrethroidspermethrin
5Spinosynsspinosad, spinetoram
28DiamidesChlorantraniliprole, Flubendiamide

* Refer: CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

Guidelines:

  1. Monitor pest levels and do not spray unless pest thresholds are exceeded.
  2. Rotate insecticide groups and do not use two consecutive applications of products with the same Mode of Action.
  3. Integrate both chemical and non-chemical means of control as part of the overall control strategy. Examples are the use of predators/parasites and relevant cultural practices (crop hygiene, rotation of planted areas, and strategic time of planting).

Crop(s): Pasture/Winter Crops

Mite: Redlegged Earth Mite (RLEM) Halotydeus destructor

Guidelines:

  • Rotate insecticide groups.
  • Do not apply consecutive sprays of products from any one insecticide group
Crop Stage

Group*

Chemical Sub-group Example chemical
Seed Treatment (or in-furrow)

4A

1B

2B

Neonicotinoids or organophosphates or phenylpyrazoles Imidacloprid dimethoate fipronil
Bare Earth (Preemergent)

1B

3A

organophosphates or synthetic pyrethroids omethoate bifenthrin
Early Season (Autumn when limited green growth)

3A

1B

synthetic pyrethroids or organophosphates alpha-cypermethrin chlorpyrifos
Spring

1B

3A

organophosphates or synthetic pyrethroids Omethoate gamma-cyhalothrin

*Groups are the International Resistance Action Committee Insecticide Groups based on mode of action of the insecticides - refer MoA tables.

If both autumn and spring applications are needed, alternate between synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates

Timing of Sprays

  1. Monitor Redlegged Earth Mite (RLEM) activity carefully and only treat if damage has reached threshold levels.
  2. One well timed spray in Autumn or Spring will maximise effectiveness of treatment.

Placement of Sprays

  1. Apply perimeter sprays where infestations are concentrated on the edge of fields.
  2. Use blanket sprays where appropriate.
Cultural Practices
  1. Heavy grazing or cutting for hay or cultivation will reduce mite numbers.
  2. Develop damage thresholds.
  3. Rotate crops and pastures that are more tolerant to the pest.
  4. Encourage predator survival by judicious use of insecticides.
  5. Control alternative hosts such as Capeweed and Paterson's curse.
For more detail on resistance management for RLEM in grain crops and pastures, refer to: http://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/ipm-information/resistance-management-strategies/
Crop(s): Various

Insect(s): Silverleaf Whitefly

Guidelines:

  1. Monitor pest numbers and apply control measures before adult populations reach high levels.
  2. Select registered insecticide control measures according to the primary growth stage of the pest, the infestation level and the age and type of crop.
  3. In cotton, spray decisions should be based on the Silverleaf Whitefly threshold matrix. Refer to the current Cotton Pest Management Guide for further details
  4. Where possible, utilise selective insecticides during the early stages of crop development to minimise the impact on beneficial insects.
  5. Rotate between registered insecticides that have different modes of action (eg. Group 1, Group 3, Group 4, Group 7, Group 12, Group 23, Group 28 and Group 29).
  6. Do not apply more than two consecutive applications of insecticides that have the same Mode of Action within and between seasons.
  7. The Modes of Action (groups) and registered insecticides for control of Silverleaf Whitefly are listed below.
Group*Chemical sub-groupExample chemicals
1BOrganophosphateacephate
3ASynthetic pyrethroidbifenthrin
4ANeonicotinoidacetamiprid, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam
7CPyriproxyfenpyriproxyfen
12ADiafenthiuron

diafenthiuron
23Spirotetramatspirotetramat
--Petroleum oilpetroleum oil
28DiamidesCyantraniliprole
29Flonicamidflonicamid

* Refer: CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

8. Seek advice from the manufacturers and/or government advisory services to determine local resistance levels for particular Mode of Action Groups.

9. Do not exceed the maximum number of applications permitted on the insecticide label.

10. When using insecticides to control other pests, consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to resistance development of Silverleaf Whitefly.

11. When using insecticides to control other pests consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare Silverleaf Whitefly populations.

NOTE:

Not all chemical groups listed have registered products available in all crops affected by Silverleaf Whitefly. Only use products registered for use in crop to be treated.

 

Cultural Practices:

  1. In vegetable crops, ensure seedlings are free of pests prior to transplanting. Inspect transplants carefully upon arrival for whitefly eggs, nymphs and adults.
  2. Control alternate weed hosts of Silverleaf Whitefly 2-3 weeks before planting to reduce early population levels.
  3. Clean-up crop residues

(a) Plough in crops within 2-3 days of application to kill all remaining nymphs on crop foliage to reduce pest migration into new plantings.

(b) Where moderate population levels remain after harvest, apply a registered insecticide or oil treatment effective against adults.

Crop(s): Pome Fruit

Mite : Two Spotted Mite, European Red Mite

Guidelines:

    1. Make no more than one application from each registered miticide group per season. Rotate registered miticides that have different mode of action (i.e. Group 6, Group 10A, Group 10B, Group 12B, Group 12C, Group 13, Group 20D and Group 21A).
    2. For miticides that have the same mode of action (eg. Group 21A) do not use consecutive applications within and between seasons.
  1. Group* Chemical sub-group Example chemical
    6 Avermectins, milbemycins abamectin, milbemectin
    10A Clofentezine, hexythiazox clofentezine, hexythiazox
    10B Etoxazole etoxazole
    12B Organotin miticides fenbutatin oxide
    12C Propargite propargite
    13 Chlorfenapyr chlorfenapyr
    20D Bifenazate bifenazate
    21A METI acaricides fenpyroximate, tebufenpyrad

    * Refer CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

    Notes:

    1. Miticides should be used as part of an Integrated Mite Control (IMC) program.
    2. Mite levels should be monitored and thresholds utilised before deciding to make miticide applications.
    3. Where practicable, predatory mites should be incorporated into an IMC program.
    4. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests of pome fruit such as codling moth, lightbrown apple moth and woolly aphid, consider the chemical group and the potential impact it may have on resistance development of mite pests.
    5. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests of pome fruit consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare mite population.
    6. For more information refer to the NSW Orchard Plant Protection Guide 2016-2017

    Crop(s): Strawberries/ornamentals

    Mite : Two Spotted Mite

    Guidelines:

    1. Monitor mite activity and treat infestations before thresholds are reached, ie. spray earlier rather than later.  Seek advice on local threshold levels.
    2. Do not apply sequential applications of products from any one chemical group.
    3. Preferably products with the same Mode of Action should not be used more than twice in a growing season
    4. Incorporate the use of predatory mites for the control of this pest wherever possible.

    Insect : Western Flower Thrips

    For information refer Industry and Investment NSW website - Western flower thrips (WFT) insecticide resistance management plan

      (i) Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region;

CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups.  The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management.

All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.  These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels.  They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance.  It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents.  The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au