Table 1: Plant pathogens accepted as showing a medium risk of development of resistance to fungicides
|Bremia lactucae||Lettuce||Downy mildew|
|Leptosphaera nodorum (Stagonospora nodorum)||Wheat||Leaf spot|
|Monilinia spp.||Stone and pome fruit||Monilinia rots|
|Mycosphaerella graminicola (Septoria tritici)||Wheat||Septoria|
|Mycosphaerella musicola||Banana||Yellow Sigatoka (Leaf Spot)|
|Peronospora spp.||Various||Downy mildew|
|Podosphaera leucotricha||Apple||Powdery mildew|
|Pyrenophora teres||Barley||Net Blotch|
|Pyrepnophora tritici-repentis||Wheat||Tan spot (yellow spot)|
|Erysiphe necator *||Grapevine||Powdery mildew|
|* The EPPO Guideline lists these pathogens as high risk and baselines are normally requested|
Table 2: Plant pathogens accepted as showing a high risk of development of resistance to fungicides (adapted from EPPO, 2002)
|Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea)||Various, especially grapevine||Grey mould|
|Erysiphe graminis||Wheat / barley||Powdery mildew|
|Mycosphaerella fijiensis||Banana||Black sigatoka|
|Phytophthora infestans||Potato||Late blight|
|Plasmopara viticola||Grapevine||Downy mildew|
|Pseudoperonospora cubensis and related||Cucurbits||Downy mildew|
|Pyricularia oryzae||Rice||Rice blast|
|Sphaerotheca fuligenea and related||Cucurbits||Powdery mildew|
|Venturia spp.||Apple, pear||Scab|
Table 3: Plant pathogens for which resistance has been confirmed in Australia. Users are advised to at all times adhere to appropriate resistance management strategies.
|FRAC Pathogen||Crop||Resistance confirmed against||
|Blumeria graminis f.s.p. hordei||Barley||Tebuconazole||
Pathogens with high resistance risk:
In some cases, fungicides from additional fungicide activity groups may be available under permit for use in the above crop/pest situations. Details of such permits can be obtained from the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) website: (www.apvma.gov.au). In the absence of a resistance management strategy for activity groups of products available under permit, or in the absence of restrictions contained within the permit, it is strongly advised that those products (excluding Group M fungicides) be used in alternation with registered products from other fungicide activity groups, which should be used in accordance with the following resistance management strategies.
Pathogens with medium or unlisted resistance risk
In some cases, fungicides from additional fungicide activity groups may be available under permit for use in the above crop/pest situation. Details of such permits can be obtained from the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) website: (www.apvma.gov.au). In the absence of a resistance management strategy for activity groups of products available under permit, it is advised that spray programs incorporating those products (excluding Group M fungicides) also incorporate registered products from other fungicide activity groups, which should be used in accordance with the following resistance management strategies.
CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups. The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management.
All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits. These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels. They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance. It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents. The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au