Table 1: Plant pathogens accepted as showing a medium risk of development of resistance to fungicides

FRAC Pathogen Crop Disease
Bremia lactucae Lettuce Downy mildew
Gibberella fujikuroi* Rice Bakanae
Leptosphaera nodorum (Stagonospora nodorum) Wheat Leaf spot
Monilinia spp. Stone and pome fruit Monilinia rots
Mycosphaerella graminicola (Septoria tritici) Wheat Septoria
Mycosphaerella musicola Banana Yellow Sigatoka (Leaf Spot)
Peronospora spp. Various Downy mildew
Podosphaera leucotricha Apple Powdery mildew
Puccinia spp. Wheat/barley Rusts
Pyrenophora teres Barley Net Blotch
Pyrepnophora tritici-repentis Wheat Tan spot (yellow spot)
Tapesia spp. Wheat/barley Eyespot
Erysiphe necator * Grapevine Powdery mildew
* The EPPO Guideline lists these pathogens as high risk and baselines are normally requested

Table 2: Plant pathogens accepted as showing a high risk of development of resistance to fungicides (adapted from EPPO, 2002)

FRAC Pathogen Crop Disease
Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) Various, especially grapevine Grey mould
Erysiphe graminis Wheat / barley Powdery mildew
Mycosphaerella fijiensis Banana Black sigatoka
Phytophthora infestans Potato Late blight
Plasmopara viticola Grapevine Downy mildew
Pseudoperonospora cubensis and related Cucurbits Downy mildew
Pyricularia oryzae Rice Rice blast
Sphaerotheca fuligenea and related Cucurbits Powdery mildew
Venturia spp. Apple, pear Scab

Table 3: Plant pathogens for which resistance has been confirmed in Australia.  Users are advised to at all times adhere to appropriate resistance management strategies.

FRAC Pathogen Crop Resistance confirmed against

FRAC

Group

Disease
Botrytis cinerea Strawberries Iprodione

2

Grey mould
    Strobilurins

11

 
    Pyrimethanil

9

 
    Fenhexamid

17

 
Blumeria graminis f.s.p. hordei Barley Tebuconazole

3

Powdery mildew
Podosphaera xanthii         Cucurbits Buprimate

8

Powdery mildew
    Strobilurins

11

 
    Triadimenol

3

 
Erysiphe necator Grapes Strobilurins

11

Powdery mildew
Venturia inaequalis Apples Triazoles

3

Black spot
Plasmopara viticola Grapes Phenylamides

4

Downy mildew
Mycosphaerella musicola Bananas Strobilurins

11

Yellow sigatoka

Pathogens with high resistance risk:

In some cases, fungicides from additional fungicide activity groups may be available under permit for use in the above crop/pest situations.  Details of such permits can be obtained from the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) website: (www.apvma.gov.au).   In the absence of a resistance management strategy for activity groups of products available under permit, or in the absence of restrictions contained within the permit, it is strongly advised that those products (excluding Group M fungicides) be used in alternation with registered products from other fungicide activity groups, which should be used in accordance with the following resistance management strategies.

Pathogens with medium or unlisted resistance risk

In some cases, fungicides from additional fungicide activity groups may be available under permit for use in the above crop/pest situation.  Details of such permits can be obtained from the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) website:  (www.apvma.gov.au).  In the absence of a resistance management strategy for activity groups of products available under permit, it is advised that spray programs incorporating those products (excluding Group M fungicides) also incorporate registered products from other fungicide activity groups, which should be used in accordance with the following resistance management strategies.


CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups.  The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management.

All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.  These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels.  They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance.  It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents.  The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au