Herbicide Mode of Action Table

Herbicide Mode of Action Groups

List of approved active constituents in each “Group” and, for ease of identification, the trade name of the first registered product or successor.  Refer to the APVMA website (www.apvma.gov.au) to obtain a complete list of registered products from the PUBCRIS database.

High Resistance Risk

Chemical family Active constituent (first registered trade name)
GROUP  1

Inhibition of acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase (ACC’ase inhibitors)

Aryloxyphenoxy-propionates (FOPs) clodinafop (Topik®), cyhalofop (Agixa®*, Barnstorm®), diclofop (Cheetah® Gold* Decision®*, Hoegrass®), fenoxaprop (Cheetah®, Gold*, Wildcat®), fluazifop (Fusilade®), haloxyfop (Verdict®), propaquizafop (Shogun®), quizalofop (Targa®)
Cyclohexanediones (DIMs) butroxydim (Factor®*), clethodim (Select®), profoxydim (Aura®), sethoxydim (Cheetah® Gold*, Decision®*), tralkoxydim (Achieve®)
Phenylpyrazoles (DENs) pinoxaden (Axial®)
GROUP  2

Inhibition of acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors), acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)

Imidazolinones (IMIs) imazamox (Intervix®*, Raptor®), imazapic (Bobcat I-Maxx®*, Flame®, Midas®*, OnDuty®*), imazapyr (Arsenal Xpress®*, Intervix®*, Lightning®*, Midas®* OnDuty®*), imazethapyr (Lightning®*, Spinnaker®)
Pyrimidinyl–thio-benzoates bispyribac (Nominee®), pyrithiobac (Staple®)
Sulfonylureas (SUs) azimsulfuron (Gulliver®), bensulfuron (Londax®), chlorsulfuron (Glean®), ethoxysulfuron (Hero®), foramsulfuron (Tribute®), halosulfuron (Sempra®), iodosulfuron (Hussar®), mesosulfuron (Atlantis®), metsulfuron (Ally®, Harmony®* M, Stinger®*, Trounce®*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide), prosulfuron (Casper®*), rimsulfuron (Titus®), sulfometuron (Oust®, Eucmix Pre Plant®*, Trimac Plus®*), sulfosulfuron (Monza®), thifensulfuron (Harmony®* M), triasulfuron (Logran®, Logran® B-Power®*), tribenuron (Express®), trifloxysulfuron (Envoke®, Krismat®*)
Triazolopyrimidines-Type 1 florasulam (Crest®*, Gangster®*, Paradigm®*, Vortex®*, X‑Pand®*), flumetsulam (Broadstrike®, Thistrol® Gold*), metosulam (Eclipse®)
Triazolopyrimidines-Type 2 pyroxsulam (Crusader® Rexade®*)

*              This product contains more than one active constituent

Moderate Resistance Risk

Chemical family Active constituent (first registered trade name)
GROUP  3

Inhibition of microtubule assembly

Benzamides propyzamide (Effigy®*, Kerb®)
Benzoic acids chlorthal (Dacthal®, Prothal®*)
Dinitroanilines: (DNAs) oryzalin (Rout®*, Surflan®), pendimethalin (Freehand*®, Stomp®), prodiamine (Barricade®), trifluralin (Bolta Duo®*, Jetti Duo®*, Treflan®)
Pyridines dithiopyr (Dimension®)
GROUP  4

Disruptors of plant cell growth (Auxin mimics)

Benzoates dicamba (Banvel®, Banvel M®*, Barrel®*, Casper®*, Lawnweeder plus®*, Lawn weedkiller*, Mecoban®, Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Nuturf Millennium®*, Sandoban®*)
Phenoxy-carboxylates

(Phenoxys)

2,4-D (Actril DS®*, Amicide®, Fallow Boss Tordon®*, Methar Tri-Kombi®*, Pyresta®*, Vortex®*), 2,4-DB (Trifolamine®), dichlorprop (Lantana 600®), MCPA (Agtryne® MA*, Banvel M®*, Barrel®*, Basagran® M60*, Buctril® MA*, Buffalo Pro Weedkiller®*, Condor*®, Flight®*, Lawnweeder plus®*, Lawn Weedkiller*, Midas®*, Paragon®*, Precept®*, Quadrant®*, Silverado®*, Spearhead®*, Thistrol Gold*®, Tigrex®*, Tordon 242®*, Triathlon®*), MCPB (Legumine®, Thistrol Gold*®), mecoprop  (Mecoban®, Mecopropamine®, Methar Tri‑Kombi®*, Multiweed®*)
Pyridine carboxylates

(Pyridines)

aminopyralid (Fallow Boss Tordon®*, ForageMax®*, Grazon Extra®*, Hotshot®*, Stinger®*, Vigilant II®*), clopyralid (Lontrel®, Nuturf Millennium®*, Spearhead®*, Trimac Plus®*, Velmac Plus®*) , florpyrauxifen (Agixa®*, Ubeniq®), halauxifen (ForageMax®*, Paradigm®*, Pixxaro®*, Rexade®*), picloram (Fallow Boss Tordon®*, Grazon Extra®*, Tordon®, Tordon 242®*, Tordon Regrowth Master®*, Trinoc®*, Vigilant II®*),
Quinoline-carboxylates quinclorac (Drive®)
Pyridyloxy-carboxylates fluroxypyr (Crest®*, Hotshot®*, Pixxaro®*, Starane®), triclopyr (Garlon®, Grazon Extra®*, Tordon Regrowth Master®*, Tough Roundup® Weedkiller*, Ultimate Brushweed®* Herbicide)
GROUP  5

Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II – D1 Serine 264 binders (and other non-histidine binders) (PS II Serine 264 inhibitors)

Amides propanil (Stam®)
Phenylcarbamates phenmedipham (Betanal®)
Pyridazinones chloridazon (Pyramin®)
Triazines ametryn (Amigan®*, Gesapax® Combi*, Krismat®, Primatol Z®), atrazine (Gesapax® Combi*, Gesaprim®, Primextra® Gold*), cyanazine (Bladex®), prometryn (Bandit®*, Cotogard®*, Gesagard®), propazine (Agaprop®), simazine (Brunnings RTU Path Weeder®*, Gesatop®, Bantox®*, Yates Once A Year Path Weeder®*), terbuthylazine (Effigy*®, Firestorm®*, Palmero TX®*, Terbyne®), terbutryn (Agtryne® MA*, Amigan®*, Igran®)
Triazinones amicarbazone (Amitron®*) hexazinone (Bobcat I-Maxx®*, Velmac Plus®*, Velpar® K4*, Velpar® L), metribuzin (Aptitude®*, Sencor®)
Uracils bromacil (Hyvar®, Krovar®*), terbacil (Eucmix Pre Plant®*, Sinbar®, Trimac Plus®*)
Ureas diuron (Karmex®, Krovar®*, Velpar® K4*), fluometuron (Bandit®*, Cotogard®*, Cotoran®), linuron (Afalon®), methabenzthiazuron (Tribunil®), siduron (Tupersan®), tebuthiuron (Graslan®)
GROUP  6

Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem II – D1 Histadine 215 binders

(PS II Histadine 215 inhibitors)

Benzothiadiazinones bentazone (Basagran®, Basagran® M60*, Lawnweeder Plus®*)
Nitriles bromoxynil (Barrel®*, Buctril®, Buctril® MA*, Buffalo Pro Weedkiller®*, Eliminar C®*, Flight®*, Jaguar®*, Quadrant®*, Talinor®*, Triathlon®*, Velocity®*), ioxynil (Actril® DS*, Totril®)
GROUP  9

Inhibition of 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3 phosphate synthase (EPSP inhibition)

Glycines glyphosate (Arsenal Xpress®*, Bantox*, Broadway®*, Firestorm®*, Illico®*, Resolva®*, Roundup®, Sandoban*®, Tough Roundup® Weedkiller*, Trounce®*, Yates Pathweeder®*)
GROUP  10

Inhibition of glutamine synthetase

Phosphinic acids glufosinate (Basta®, Liberty®)
GROUP  12

Inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS inhibitors)

 N-Phenyl heterocycles norflurazon (Solicam®)
 Phenyl-ethers diflufenican (Brodal®, Gangster®*, Jaguar®*, Quadrant®*, Spearhead®*, Tigrex®*, Triathlon®*, Yates Pathweeder®*), picolinafen (Eliminar C®*, Flight®*, Paragon®*, Quadrant®*, Sniper®)
GROUP  13

Inhibition of deoxy-D-xyulose phosphate synthase (DOXP inhibitors)

Isoxazolidinones bixlozone (Overwatch®), clomazone (Altiplano®*, Command®)
GROUP  14

Inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO inhibitors)

Diphenyl ethers acifluorfen (Blazer®), fomesafen (Reflex®), oxyfluorfen (Goal®, Rout®, Yates Pathweeder®)
 N-Phenyl-oxadiazolones oxadiargyl (Raft®), oxadiazon (Ronstar®)
Phenylpyrazoles pyraflufen (Condor*®, Ecopar®, Pyresta®*)
N-Phenyl-imides butafenacil (B-Power®*, Logran® B-Power®*, Resolva®*), flumioxazin (Valor®, Terrain®), saflufenacil (Sharpen®, Voraxor*®), tiafenacil (Terrad’Or®), trifludimoxazin (Voraxor*®)
N-Phenyl-triazolinones carfentrazone (Affinity®, Aptitude®*, Broadway®, Buffalo Pro Weedkiller®*, Silverado®*)
GROUP  15

Inhibition of very long chain fatty acid synthesis (VLCFA inhibitors)

α-Chloroacetamides dimethenamid (Freehand*, Frontier®-P, Outlook ®), metazachlor (Butisan®), metolachlor (Boxer® Gold*, Dual® Gold, Primextra® Gold*), propachlor (Prothal®*, Ramrod®)
Benzofurans ethofumesate (Tramat®)
Isoxazolines pyroxasulfone ( Sakura®)
Thiocarbamates EPTC (Eptam®), molinate (Ordram®), pebulate (Tillam®), prosulfocarb (Arcade®, Bolta Duo®*, Boxer® Gold*, Diablo Duo®*), thiobencarb (Saturn®), tri-allate (Avadex®, Diablo Duo®*, Jetti Duo®*), vernolate (Vernam®)
GROUP  18
Inhibition of dihydropteroate synthase (DHP inhibitors)
Carbamates asulam (Asulox®)
GROUP  19
Inhibition of auxin transport (ATIs)
 Aryl-carboxylates naptalam (Alanap-L®)
GROUP  22

Inhibition of photosynthesis at photosystem I via electron diversion (PSI electron diversion)

 Pyridiniums diquat (Reglone®, Spray Seed®*), paraquat (Alliance®*, Gramoxone®, Spray Seed®*)
GROUP  23
Inhibition of microtubule organisation
Carbamates carbetamide (Carbetamex®), chlorpropham (Chlorpropham®)
GROUP  27

Inhibition of 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD inhibitors)

Isoxazoles isoxaflutole (Balance® Palmero TX®*)
Pyrazoles benzofenap (Taipan®), pyrasulfotole (Precept®*, Velocity®*) topramezone (Frequency®)
Triketones bicyclopyrone (Talinor®*), mesotrione (Callisto®)
GROUP  29
Inhibition of cellulose biosynthesis
Alkylazines indaziflam (Specticle®)
Benzamides isoxaben (Gallery®, X-Pand®*)
Nitriles dichlobenil (Casoron®)
GROUP  30
Inhibition of fatty acid thioesterase
Benzyl ether cinmethylin (Luximax®), methiozolin (PoaCure Turf®)
GROUP  31

Inhibition of serine-threonine protein phosphatase (STPP inhibitors)

Unknown endothal (Endothal®)
GROUP  34

Inhibition of lycopene cyclase

Triazoles amitrole (Alliance®*, Amitrole®, Brunnings RTU Pathweeder®*, Illico®*, Firestorm®*, Yates Onceyear Pathweeder®*)
GROUP  0

Herbicides with unknown mode of action

Arylaminopropionic acids flamprop (Mataven® L)
Acetamides napropamide (Altiplano®*, Devrinol®)
Organoarsenicals DSMA (disodium methylarsonate) (Methar®, Trinoc®*), MSMA (monosodium methylarsonate) (Daconate®)
Fatty acids Pelargonic acid (Nonanoic acid) (Slasher®)
Chlorocarbonic acids dalapon (Dalapon®, Yates Onceyear Pathweeder®*, flupropanate (Frenock®)
Phosphorodithioates bensulide (Prefar®)

*              This product contains more than one active constituent


URL: https://croplife.org.au/resources/programs/resistance-management/herbicide-moa-table-4-draft-2/
Content last updated: June 10, 2020

CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups. The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management. All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.

These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels. They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance. It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents. The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au

The information given in this strategy is provided in good faith and without any liability for loss or damage suffered as a result of its application and use. Advice given in this strategy is valid as at 16 July 2021. All previous versions of this strategy are now invalid.