Insecticide Resistance Management Strategies

  1. INTRODUCTION

    The CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group (IRMRG) has drafted insect resistance management strategies in conjunction with growers, researchers and agronomists to minimise the development of insect resistance to insecticides. These strategies provide growers with guidelines for insecticide use (and other methods) for sustainable insect control.

    PRINCIPLES OF RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT

    Insecticide or acaricide resistance management strategies seek to minimise the selection for resistance to any one type of insecticide or acaricide. This requires an understanding of insecticides as they are grouped according to similarity of Mode of Action (MoA) in controlling insects and mites.

    In practice, sequences or rotations of compounds from different MoA groups providean effective approach to resistance management. In practice, sequences or rotations of compounds from different MoA groups provide an effective approach to resistance management. These MoA groups are shown in the Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides Table.

    EFFECTIVE RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES USE ALTERNATIONS OR SEQUENCES OF DIFFERENT MODES OF ACTION

    The objective of Insecticide Resistance Management is to prevent or delay resistance developing to insecticides, or to help regain susceptibility in insect pest populations in which resistance has already arisen. IRM is important in maintaining the efficacy of valuable insecticides. It is usually easier to prevent resistance occurring than it is to reactively regain susceptibility.

    Insecticide applications are often arranged into MoA spray windows or blocks that are defined by the stage of crop development and the biology of the pest(s) of concern. Local expert advice should always be followed with regard to spray windows and timings. Several sprays of a compound may be possible within each spray window but it is generally essential to ensure that successive generations of the pest are not treated with compounds from the same MoA group.

    WHAT IS RESISTANCE?

    Resistance to insecticides and acaricides may be defined as ‘a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest species’.

    Resistance arises through the over use or misuse of an insecticide or acaricide against a pest species and results in the selection of resistant forms of the pest and the consequent evolution of populations that are resistant to that insecticide or acaricide.

    RESISTANCE MECHANISMS

    There are a number of ways insects can become resistant to insecticidal crop protection products.

    METABOLIC RESISTANCE

    Resistant insects may detoxify or destroy the toxin faster than susceptible insects, or quickly rid their bodies of the toxic molecules. Metabolic resistance is the most common mechanism and often presents the greatest challenge. Insects use their internal enzyme systems to break down insecticides. Resistant strains may possess higher levels or more efficient forms of these enzymes. In addition to being more efficient, these enzyme systems also may have a broad spectrum of activity (i.e., they can degrade many different insecticides).

    TARGET-SITE RESISTANCE

    The target site where the insecticide acts in the insect may be genetically modified to prevent the insecticide binding or interacting at its site of action thereby reducing or eliminating the pesticidal effect of the insecticide.

    PENETRATION RESISTANCE

    Resistant insects may absorb the toxin more slowly than susceptible insects. Penetration resistance occurs when the insect’s outer cuticle develops barriers which can slow absorption of the chemicals into their bodies. This can protect insects from a wide range of insecticides. Penetration resistance is frequently present along with other forms of resistance, and reduced penetration intensifies the effects of those other mechanisms.

    BEHAVIOURAL RESISTANCE

    Resistant insects may detect or recognize a danger and avoid the toxin. This mechanism of resistance has been reported for several classes of insecticides, including organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. Insects may simply stop feeding if they come across certain insecticides, or leave the area where spraying occurred (for instance, they may move to the underside of a sprayed leaf, move deeper in the crop canopy or fly away from the target area).

    MODE OF ACTION, TARGET-SITE RESISTANCE AND CROSS-RESISTANCE

    In the majority of cases, not only does resistance render the selecting insecticide ineffective but it often confers cross-resistance to other chemically related compounds. Compounds within a specific chemical group usually share a common target site within the pest, and thus share a common Mode of Action (MoA). It is common for resistance to develop that is based on a genetic modification of this target site. When this happens the compound loses its pesticidal efficacy. Because all compounds within the chemical sub-group share a common MoA, there is a high risk that the resistance will automatically confer cross-resistance to all the compounds in the same sub-group. It is this concept of cross-resistance within chemically related insecticides or acaricides that is the basis of the Mode of Action classification.

    ALTERNATION OF CHEMISTRY

    Constant use of insecticides from one chemical grouping (MoA) will increase the risk of rapid build-up of resistance to that chemical group. Alternate use of chemical groups with different MoAs will slow down the process of selection for resistance.

    USE OF CULTURAL PRACTICES

    Incorporation of cultural techniques for controlling an insect pest will reduce selection pressure from the insecticides. Any resistance management strategies should incorporate all available methods of control for the insect pest concerned.

    UNDERSTANDING OF THE INSECT/MITE LIFE CYCLE

    A good understanding of the life cycle of the pest is essential so that control methods can be effectively targeted. An insecticide or acaricide should always be targeted at the pest growth stage that is most susceptible for that insecticide or acaricide.

    APPLICATION

    Label Recommendations

    Insecticide labels have been carefully developed to ensure the most effective control of the pest. The label should at all times be carefully read and adhered to.

    Rates

    Full recommended rates of registered insecticides should always be used to ensure the most effective control of the pest.

    Coverage

    The majority of insecticides require good coverage of the target area to ensure the best possible chance of contact and subsequent control of the pest.

    RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY DESIGN

    Crop/Pest or Regional Strategies

    The strategies below are provided on a CROP by PEST basis (eg. Tomato – Heliothis). However, in horticultural and agricultural areas often a range of crops are grown that are attacked by a range of pests.

    In many cases, a specific MoA insecticide can be used across this range of crops to control multiple pests that have the ability to move from crop to crop. There is interaction between intensive horticulture and broadacre farming, as with Diamondback Moth (DBM) in Brassica vegetables and resistance strategies that could be compromised by widespread use of insecticides for DBM control in canola.

    Also, the pest complex for a specific crop will vary within production regions, especially between Northern and Southern Australia.

    For this reason, CROP by PEST strategies can be flawed and further Insecticide Resistance Management (IRM) advice for specific pests should always be sought on a local basis.

    An alternative to the CROP by PEST strategy is that of “Regional strategies” such as those for Cotton, Brassicas and the Southern NSW and Northern Victorian IRM strategy for grain and annual horticultural crops”.

    These regional or specific crop strategies are located on the CropLife Australia website.

    The overall Resistance Management Strategy of avoiding overuse of individual Modes of Action insecticides should be followed, not just on a specific crop and pest but on a broad perspective of crops and pest complex.

    ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    Further information on Insecticide Resistance, Management Strategies and Insecticide Mode of Action can be found on the International IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) website www.irac-online.org.

    Crop: Bananas

    Insect(s): Banana weevil borer (Cosmopolites sordidus) and Rust Thrips (Chaetanaphothrips signipennis)

    Components of the Strategy:

    1. Use only clean planting material.
    2. If re-planting into an old banana block, allow at least 6 months fallow after old banana material has rotted down.
    3. Remove weeds and trash around banana stools to allow maximum effectiveness of insecticides and to reduce sheltering sites for weevils. Application of insecticide to trash may lead to reduced control of banana weevil borer.
    4. Cut up fallen and harvested pseudostems to reduce weevil breeding sites.
    5. Monitor regularly for banana weevil borer activity by trapping (when adult weevils are active) or conduct corm damage ratings.
    6. Only use insecticides when populations reach or exceed accepted threshold levels. Refer to local Department of Agriculture guidelines.
    7. Only use insecticides at the registered rate of application and apply at times when the particular product will have the maximum impact, i.e. use contact insecticides only when weevil borer adults are active.
    8. Use insecticides only in the years indicated in the following diagrams.
    9. Consider the impact of the use of other pesticides for other insects or nematodes on banana weevil borers.
    10. For rust thrips control, a combination of control methods such as butt/band sprays, stem injection or spray and bunch sprays may be required.

    The following two diagrams are alternative Resistance Management Strategies depending on which product(s) are chosen for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control.

    STRATEGY A

    Where products other than controlled release formulations of imidacloprid are being used to control insects in bananas.

     

    1. Products registered for banana weevil borer control.
    2. Product registered for rust thrips control as bunch sprays only.
    3. Products registered for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control.

    Guidelines:

    1. The resistance management strategy may start at any point in the product group rotation and planting may occur in any year of the strategy.
    2. The product(s) used in any one year should not be followed by product(s) from the same insecticide group in the following year.
    3. Only products from the YES insecticide groups shown in the diagram above should be applied for banana weevil borer control and/or rust thrips control in the same year.
    4. If products from Group 1A or 1B (oxamyl, cadusafos or terbufos) are being used for nematode control in a block of bananas, then products from these groups should not be used for banana weevil borer control in the following year.
    5. Where there is evidence of banana weevil borer or rust thrips resistance to a product or group of products, these should not be used again for banana weevil borer or rust thrips control until there has been use of products from other Insecticide Mode of Action groups for a period of at least 2 years.

     

    STRATEGY B

    Where products including controlled release formulations of imidacloprid are being used to control insects in bananas.

    1. Products registered for banana weevil borer control.
    2. Product registered for rust thrips control only as bunch sprays.
    3. Products registered for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control or suppression.

    Guidelines

    1. The resistance management strategy may start at year 1 or year 4  in the product group rotation.
    2. Controlled release imidacloprid provides 3 years control of banana weevil borer with one application at planting, so after the 3rd year, insecticide products from other Mode of Action groups are to be used in rotation for at least 3 years for banana weevil borer and rust thrips control in a given block of bananas.
    3. Alternative product groups are provided in these 3 years for control of rust thrips as soil or stem treatments or bunch sprays.
    4. Only products from the YES insecticide groups shown in the diagram above should be applied for banana weevil borer control and/or rust thrips control in the same year.
    5. If products from Group 1A or 1B (oxamyl, cadusafos or terbufos) are being used for nematode control in a block of bananas, then products from these groups should not be used for banana weevil borer control in the following year. 
    6. Where there is evidence of banana weevil borer or rust thrips resistance to a product or group of products, these should not be used again for banana weevil borer control until there has been use of products from other Insecticide Mode of Action groups for a period of at least 2 years.

    Crop(s): Sorghum, Maize, Summer and Winter Grain Legumes

    Insect(s): Heliothis/Cotton bollworm/Native budworm (Helicoverpa spp.)

    Guidelines:

    1. To help prevent the development of resistance to any one specific active ingredient (see table below), observe the following instructions:
    • Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region. Guidelines for use in chickpeas are also associated with the TIMS cotton IRMS.
    • Apply a specific active ingredient using a “window” approach to avoid exposure of consecutive insect pest generations to the same mode of action. Multiple successive applications of a specific active ingredient are acceptable if they are used to treat a single pest generation.
    • Following a “window” of a specific mode of action product, rotate to a “window” of applications of effective insecticides with a different mode of action.
    • The total exposure period of any one mode of action “active window” applied throughout the crop cycle (from seedling to harvest) should not exceed 50% of the crop cycle.
    • Incorporate IPM techniques into the overall pest management program and
    • Monitor insect populations for loss of field efficacy.
    1. Always read and follow product labels. Some products place a limit on the number of times they can be applied per crop (see table below) and when they can be applied.
    2. Monitor crops regularly and only apply insecticide when the pest threshold is reached.
    3. Ensure spray rig is properly calibrated and achieving good coverage with appropriate sized spray droplets.
    4. Time the application to the most susceptible life stage of the target pest.
    5. To encourage beneficial insects, use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or NPV sprays and avoid broad spectrum insecticides where possible, particularly early to mid-crop cycle.
    6. Be cautious of using insecticide tank-mixes where both active ingredients control Helicoverpa spp. as this strategy is generally not considered best practice for resistance management. Refer to document IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement for more information on this subject.
    7. DO NOT re-treat a spray failure with a product from the same chemical group.
    8. Practice effective pupae busting as soon as practicable after harvest.

     

    Mode of Action Group as specified on product labelActive ingredientNumber applications permitted per crop per season from product labelLabelled crops
    1Amethomyl, thiodicarbnot specifiedAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses
    3Asynthetic pyrethroids (various)not specifiedAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses
    5spinetoramTBCAll pulses
    6emamectin benzoate2All pulses
    11ABacillus thuringiensisnot specifiedAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses
    22Aindoxacarb1chickpea, faba bean, mung bean, soybean, azuki bean
    28chlorantraniliproleRefer to labelAll pulses
    Not CategorisedNucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV)no limit but avoid season long use of low ratesAll cereal grains, oilseed, pulses

    For more information refer to the IPM Guidelines H. armigera RMS for Australian grains: https://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/ipm-information/resistance-management-strategies/

    Crop(s): Brassica

    Insect(s): Diamondback Moth

    Guidelines:

    1. To help prevent the development of resistance to any one specific active ingredient (see table below), observe the following instructions:
    • Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region. For growers in the Lockyer Valley region, please refer to the Lockyer Valley Diamondback Moth Insecticide Resistance Management Strategy. For growers in Western Australia, please refer to the Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development two-window strategy.
    • Apply a specific active ingredient using a “window” approach to avoid exposure of consecutive insect pest generations to the same mode of action. Multiple successive applications of a specific active ingredient are acceptable if they are used to treat a single pest generation.
    • Following a “window” of a specific mode of action product, rotate to a “window” of applications of effective insecticides with a different mode of action.
    • The total exposure period of any one mode of action “active window” applied throughout the crop cycle (from seedling to harvest) should not exceed 50% of the crop cycle.
    • Incorporate IPM techniques into the overall pest management program and Monitor insect populations for loss of field efficacy.
    1. Always read and follow product labels. Some products place a limit on the number of times they can be applied per crop (see table below) and when they can be applied.
    2. Monitor crops regularly and only apply insecticide when the pest threshold is reached.
    3. Be aware of insecticide mode of actions used in the nursery phase of the crop and ensure a one generation break exists before re-use of that same mode of action in the field phase of the crop.
    4. Ensure spray rig is properly calibrated and achieving good coverage with appropriate sized spray droplets.
    5. Time the application to the most susceptible life stage of the target pest.
    6. To encourage beneficial insects, use Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sprays and avoid broad spectrum insecticides, particularly early to mid-crop cycle.
    7. Be cautious of using insecticide tank-mixes where both active ingredients control DBM as this strategy is generally not considered best practice for resistance management. Refer to document IRAC International Insecticide Mixture Statement for more information on this subject.
    8. DO NOT re-treat a spray failure with a product from the same chemical group.
    9. Practice good crop hygiene to reduce DBM pressure – plant clean seedlings and incorporate crop residue as soon as practical after harvest.
    Mode of Action Group as specified on the product labeled on product labelActive ingredientNumber applications permitted per crop per season from product label
    1Amethomyl, thiodicarbNot specified
    2Bfipronil4 per year within 8 week period
    3Asynthetic pyrethroids (various)Not specified
    5spinetoram4
    6emamectin benzoate4 per any one crop
    11ABacillus thuringiensisnot specified
    13chlorfenapyr2 but 4 in brussel sprouts
    22Aindoxacarb4
    23spirotetramat2 but 3 in brassica leafy vegetables
    28chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide3 but 1 for mixtures of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam

    Crop(s): Various

    Insect(s): Cotton/Melon Aphid and Green Peach Aphid

    Guidelines:

    1. Rotate between registered insecticides that have different modes of action (eg. Groups 1, 4, 9, 12A (cotton crop only), 23 , 28 and 29).
    2. Do not apply consecutive applications of insecticides that have the same mode of action within and between seasons or exceed the recommended maximum number of applications in a crop.
    3. Do not follow a seed/seedling/soil treatment with a foliar application from the same Group when aphids are present.
    4. The Modes of Action (groups) and registered insecticides for control of cotton/melon aphid and/or green peach aphid are listed below:
    Group* Chemical sub-group < strong >
    Example Chemical
    1ACarbamatespirimicarb
    1BOrganophosphatesmethamidophos
    4ANeonicotinoidimidacloprid
    4CSulfoxaflorsulfoxaflor
    9BPymetrozinepymetrozine
    9DPyropenesafidopyropen
    12ADiafenthiurondiafenthiuron
    23Tetronic and Tetramic acid derivativesspirotetramat
    28Diamidecyantraniliprole
    29Flonicamidflonicamid

    Notes:*Refer: CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

    1. There is known cross-resistance between Groups 1A and 1B. Rotate between Group 1 and Group 4, 9B, 9D, 12A, 23, 28 and 29.

    2. Consecutive applications of a Group 4A and Group 4C product may be made only if no other effective option is available – either because

         a) no other group is registered in the crop or

         b) the target pest is resistant to the other Groups.

    3. Seek advice from the manufacturers and/or government advisory services to determine local resistance levels for particular mode of action Groups

    4. Do not exceed the maximum number of applications permitted on the insecticide label.

    5. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests, consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to resistance development of Cotton/Melon Aphid and Green Peach Aphid.

    6. When using insecticides/aphicides to control other pests consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare aphid populations.

    7. For more detail on resistance management of aphids in cotton refer to the current Cotton Pest Management Guide or for more detail on resistance management for Green Peach Aphid in grain refer to https://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/ipm-information/resistance-management-strategies/ or https://grdc.com.au/resources-and-publications/all-publications/factsheets/2015/07/grdc-fs-greenpeachaphid.

    Crop(s): Sweet Corn

    Insect (s): Corn earworm (Helicoverpa armigera) aka Heliothis

    COMMENTS:

    1. The critical stage of infestation is during silking. Even low levels of heliothis infestation are unacceptable at the silking stage. Because sweet corn is less attractive to heliothis before flowering and it is picked soon after silking is completed, there is a relatively short period of protection required.
    2. Control of heliothis at the tasselling stage (occurs prior to silking stage) can be important in some regions as the tassel can act as a nursery for heliothis, which can then move onto the young developing cobs. Control of heliothis at this stage is not as difficult as at the silking stage
    3. Use of biological insecticides, Bt and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV), in the early stages of crop development is encouraged.
    4. Monitor crops regularly, at least weekly during silking and do not spray unless pest thresholds are exceeded.
    5. Labels of new products place a limit on the number of applications. If further control is required on one planting, chemicals from different mode of action groups within the same window should be used.
    6. DO NOT retreat a spray failure with a product from the same chemical group.
    7. DO NOT use mixtures of insecticides for controlling heliothis.
    8. Cultivation after harvest to destroy pupae will greatly assist in managing heliothis.
    9. Seek local advice on pest incidence and on the risk of resistance developing from insecticide programs used to control heliothis in crops other than Sweet Corn.
    10. To help prevent the development of resistance to any one specific active ingredient (see table below), observe the following instructions:
      (i) Use in accordance with the current IRMS for your region;
      (ii) Apply a specific active ingredient using a “window” approach to avoid exposure of consecutive insect pest generations to the same mode of action. Multiple successive applications of a specific active ingredient are acceptable if they are used to treat a single insect generation;
      (iii) Following a “window” of a specific mode of action product, rotate to a “window” of applications of effective insecticides with a different mode of action.
      (iv) The total exposure period of any one mode of action “active window” applied throughout the crop cycle (from seedling to harvest) should not exceed 50% of the crop cycle;
      (v) Incorporate IPM techniques into the overall pest management program;
      (vi) Monitor insect populations for loss of field efficacy.

    Mode of Action Group as specified on product labelActive ingredient
    1AMethomyl, Thiodicarb
    3ASynthetic pyrethroids (several)
    5Spinetoram
    6Emamectin benzoate
    28Chlorantraniliprole

    Crop(s): Tomato

    Insect(s): Heliothis/Tomato Budworm (Helicoverpa spp.)

    Guidelines:

    1. Monitor pest levels and do not spray unless pest thresholds are reached.
    2. DO NOT apply products outside their window of application for that chemical group.
    3. Integrate both chemical and non-chemical means of control as part of the overall control strategy. Examples are the use of predators/parasites and relevant cultural practices (crop hygiene, rotation of planted areas, and strategic time of planting).
    4. Seek local advice on pest incidence and the risk of resistance development from insecticide programs used to control Heliothis in other crops or to control other pests
    5. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests on tomato, consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to resistance development of Heliothis.

    Crop(s): Potato

    Insect(s): Potato Moth (Leafminer)


    Group*Chemical sub-groupExample chemical
    1BOrganophosphatesacephate, azinphos-methyl, methamidophos, diazinon, dichlorvos
    1ACarbamatescarbaryl, methomyl
    3APyrethroidspermethrin
    5Spinosynsspinosad, spinetoram
    28DiamidesChlorantraniliprole, Flubendiamide

    * Refer: CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

    Guidelines:

    1. Monitor pest levels and do not spray unless pest thresholds are exceeded.
    2. Rotate insecticide groups and do not use two consecutive applications of products with the same Mode of Action.
    3. Integrate both chemical and non-chemical means of control as part of the overall control strategy. Examples are the use of predators/parasites and relevant cultural practices (crop hygiene, rotation of planted areas, and strategic time of planting).

    Crop(s): Pasture/Winter Crops

    Mite: Redlegged Earth Mite (RLEM) Halotydeus destructor

    Guidelines:

    • Rotate insecticide groups.
    • DO NOT apply consecutive sprays of products from any one insecticide group.
    Crop Stage
    Group*Chemical Sub-groupExample chemical
    Seed Treatment (or in-furrow)4A

    1B

    2B
    Neonicotinoids or organophosphates or phenylpyrazolesImidacloprid dimethoate fipronil
    Bare Earth (Preemergent)1B

    3A
    organophosphates or synthetic pyrethroidsomethoate bifenthrin
    Early Season (Autumn when limited green growth)3A

    1B
    synthetic pyrethroids or organophosphatesalpha-cypermethrin chlorpyrifos
    Spring1B

    3A
    organophosphates or synthetic pyrethroidsOmethoate gamma-cyhalothrin

    *Groups are the International Resistance Action Committee Insecticide Groups based on mode of action of the insecticides – refer MoA tables.

    If both autumn and spring applications are needed, alternate between synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates.

    Timing of Sprays

    1. Monitor Redlegged Earth Mite (RLEM) activity carefully and only treat if damage has reached threshold levels.
    2. One well timed spray in Autumn or Spring will maximise effectiveness of treatment.

    Placement of Sprays

    1. Apply perimeter sprays where infestations are concentrated on the edge of fields.
    2. Use blanket sprays where appropriate.

    Cultural Practices

    1. Heavy grazing or cutting for hay or cultivation will reduce mite numbers.
    2. Develop damage thresholds.
    3. Rotate crops and pastures that are more tolerant to the pest.
    4. Encourage predator survival by judicious use of insecticides.
    5. Control alternative hosts such as Capeweed and Paterson’s curse.
    6. For more details on resistance management for RLEM in grain crops and pastures, refer to: http://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/ipm-information/resistance-management-strategies/

    Crop(s): Various

    Insect(s): Silverleaf Whitefly

    Guidelines:

    1. Monitor pest numbers and apply control measures before adult populations reach high levels.
    2. Select registered insecticide control measures according to the primary growth stage of the pest, the infestation level and the age and type of crop.
    3. In cotton, spray decisions should be based on the Silverleaf Whitefly threshold matrix. Refer to the current Cotton Pest Management Guide for further details
    4. Where possible, utilise selective insecticides during the early stages of crop development to minimise the impact on beneficial insects.
    5. Rotate between registered insecticides that have different modes of action (eg. Group 1, Group 3, Group 4, Group 7, Group 12, Group 23, Group 28 and Group 29).
    6. DO NOT apply more than two consecutive applications of insecticides that have the same Mode of Action within and between seasons.
    7. The Modes of Action (groups) and registered insecticides for control of Silverleaf Whitefly are listed below.
    Group*Chemical sub-groupExample chemicals
    1BOrganophosphateacephate
    3ASynthetic pyrethroidbifenthrin
    4ANeonicotinoidacetamiprid, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam
    7CPyriproxyfenpyriproxyfen
    12ADiafenthiuron

    diafenthiuron
    23Spirotetramatspirotetramat
    --Petroleum oilpetroleum oil
    28DiamidesCyantraniliprole
    29Flonicamidflonicamid

    * Refer: CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

    8. Seek advice from the manufacturers and/or government advisory services to determine local resistance levels for particular Mode of Action Groups.

    9. DO NOT exceed the maximum number of applications permitted on the insecticide label.

    10. When using insecticides to control other pests, consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to resistance development of Silverleaf Whitefly.

    11. When using insecticides to control other pests consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare Silverleaf Whitefly populations.

    NOTE:

    Not all chemical groups listed have registered products available in all crops affected by Silverleaf Whitefly. Only use products registered for use in crop to be treated.

     

    Cultural Practices:

    1. In vegetable crops, ensure seedlings are free of pests prior to transplanting. Inspect transplants carefully upon arrival for whitefly eggs, nymphs and adults.
    2. Control alternate weed hosts of Silverleaf Whitefly 2-3 weeks before planting to reduce early population levels.
    3. Clean-up crop residues

    (a) Plough in crops within 2-3 days of application to kill all remaining nymphs on crop foliage to reduce pest migration into new plantings.

    (b) Where moderate population levels remain after harvest, apply a registered insecticide or oil treatment effective against adults.

    Crop(s): Pome Fruit

    Mite : Two Spotted Mite, European Red Mite

    Guidelines:

      1. Make no more than one application from each registered miticide group per season. Rotate registered miticides that have different mode of action (i.e. Group 6, Group 10A, Group 10B, Group 12B, Group 12C, Group 13, Group 20D and Group 21A).
      2. For miticides that have the same mode of action (eg. Group 21A) do not use consecutive applications within and between seasons.
    1. Group*Chemical sub-groupExample chemical
      6 Avermectins, milbemycinsabamectin, milbemectin
      10AClofentezine, hexythiazoxclofentezine, hexythiazox
      10BEtoxazoleetoxazole
      12BOrganotin miticidesfenbutatin oxide
      12CPropargitepropargite
      13Chlorfenapyrchlorfenapyr
      20DBifenazatebifenazate
      21AMETI acaricidesfenpyroximate, tebufenpyrad

      * Refer CropLife Australia Insecticide Resistance Management Review Group Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides

      Notes:

      1. Miticides should be used as part of an Integrated Mite Control (IMC) program.
      2. Mite levels should be monitored and thresholds utilised before deciding to make miticide applications.
      3. Where practicable, predatory mites should be incorporated into an IMC program.
      4. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests of pome fruit such as codling moth, lightbrown apple moth and woolly aphid, consider the chemical group and the potential impact it may have on resistance development of mite pests.
      5. When using insecticides/miticides to control other pests of pome fruit consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare mite population.
      6. For more information refer to the NSW Orchard Plant Protection Guide 2018-2019.

      Crop(s): Strawberries/ornamentals

      Mite : Two Spotted Mite

      Guidelines:

      1. Monitor mite activity and treat infestations before thresholds are reached, ie. spray earlier rather than later.  Seek advice on local threshold levels.
      2. DO NOT apply sequential applications of products from any one chemical group.
      3. Preferably products with the same Mode of Action should not be used more than twice in a growing season
      4. Incorporate the use of predatory mites for the control of this pest wherever possible.

      Insect : Western Flower Thrips

      For information refer to the NSW Department of Primary Industries website – Thrips in horticultural crops

    Crop(s) : Cotton

    Insect : All Pests

    For information refer to the Cotton Pest Management Guide 2018-19: https://www.cottoninfo.com.au/publications/cotton-pest-management-guide

    Crop(s) : Canola Crops

    Insect : Forage brassica – Diamondback moth

    For information refer to the IPM Guidelines: https://ipmguidelinesforgrains.com.au/ipm-information/resistance-management-strategies/


URL: https://croplife.org.au/resources/programs/resistance-management/insecticide-resistance-management-strategies-3/insecticide-resistance-management-strategies-3-draft/
Content last updated: July 1, 2019

CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups. The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management. All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.

These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels. They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance. It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents. The database can be sourced through www.apvma.gov.au

The information given in this strategy is provided in good faith and without any liability for loss or damage suffered as a result of its application and use. Advice given in this strategy is valid as at 27 June 2019. All previous versions of this strategy are now invalid.