Nursery e.g., vegetable seedlings, trees, ornamentals – Various

Crops(s):    Nursery e.g., vegetable seedlings, trees, ornamentals
Disease(s): Various



  1. Monitor regularly for insect activity. Where relevant consider the use of light, insect traps or other monitoring tools.
  2. Only use insecticides when insect populations reach accepted threshold levels.
  3. Always read and follow product labels and use the full recommended label rates of application. Some products place a limit on the number of times they can be applied per crop and when they can be applied.
  4. Ensure the spray equipment is properly calibrated and achieves good coverage with appropriately sized spray droplets.
  5. In the case of soil applied insecticides, apply only once prior to transplanting. Apply using sufficient water that does not result in any drop point from the soil medium containing the seedling or plant. If watering is required between applications and planting, it should be done sparingly, only as required. Avoid water to run-through from the cells, bags etc.
  6. When transplanting soil-treated seedlings or plants, ensure that the growing medium is fully transferred to the field with each seedling or plant.
  7. Rotate between registered insecticides that have different modes of action.
  8. Where possible avoid applying consecutive applications of insecticides that have the same mode of action within and between seasons or exceed the recommended maximum number of applications in a crop.
  9. Do not follow a seed, seedling or soil treatment with a foliar application from the same mode of action group.
  10. Time the foliar applications to the most susceptible life stage of the target pest.
  11. Do not re-treat a spray failure with a product from the same mode of action group.
  12. Avoid using insecticide tank-mixes where both active ingredients control the same insect pests as this strategy is generally not considered best practice for resistance management.
  13. Practice good crop hygiene to reduce insect pressure e.g., removing severely infested seedling trays, plants or host weeds.
  14. Nurseries supplying treated plants to commercial operations should clearly identify insecticides that have been applied, supply paperwork to the recipient accompanying the plant that indicates the rates and date. For treated seedlings the time of application should also be included, particularly if applied just prior to transplant in the field.

Notes regarding the application of insecticides:

  1. Refer to the CropLife Australia Expert Committee on Insecticide Resistance Mode of Action Classification for Insecticides.
  2. There is known cross-resistance between some chemical groups e.g., Groups 1A and 1B.
  3. Seek advice from the manufacturers or government advisory services to determine local resistance levels for particular mode of action groups.
  4. Do not exceed the maximum number of applications permitted on the insecticide label.
  5. When using insecticides to control other pests consider the chemical group in relation to contributing to the resistance development of other insect pets.

When using insecticides to control insect pests consider the effect on beneficial insects and the potential to flare insect populations.

Content last updated: June 26, 2024

CropLife Australia’s Resistance Management Strategies provide a guide for crop protection product rotation through product groups. The strategies are a useful tool that supports farmers’ adoption of resistance management. All crop protection products must be handled and applied strictly as specified on the product label or APVMA permits.

These Resistance Management Strategies do not replace product labels. They are a guide only and do not endorse particular products, groups of products or cultural methods in terms of their performance. It is important to check with the Australian regulator’s (APVMA) product database for contemporary information on products and active constituents. The database can be sourced through

The information given in this strategy is provided in good faith and without any liability for loss or damage suffered as a result of its application and use. Advice given in this strategy is valid as at 26 June 2024. All previous versions of this strategy are now invalid.